In addition to working with numbers up to 1 million, students are introduced to integers, such as -2, -1, 0, 1, 2. They are learning the divisibility rules of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10. For example, a number is divisible by 5 if it ends in a 5 or 0. Expanding operational skills include dividing a whole number by a fraction or a mixed number, such as 2½. Students also solve problems that involve more than one operation and the use of whole numbers, decimals and fractions.
Students continue to work with patterns and start to identify patterns that grow at a constant rate. For example, if someone drives 100 kilometers per hour, the distance travelled increases by 100 kilometers for each hour. They solve algebraic expressions involving whole numbers and decimal tenths, and algebraic equations involving multiple terms, such as 2x + 3x = 5. Students use code to solve problems that involve optimization, such as finding the maximum area for a given perimeter. They also use the process of mathematical modelling to solve problems drawn from real-life, such as finding several different ways to maximize the play area in a playground design and calculating the costs of each.
Students learn to distinguish between discrete data, such as the number of students, and continuous data, such as the amount of precipitation in centimeters. They can choose how to display these different types of data, including the use of broken-line graphs to show the change over time. In addition, students learn different ways to describe probability. For example, there is a one in four chance of winning a prize at the school fun fair, or there is a 40 per cent chance of rain tomorrow.
Developing spatial sense continues with an emphasis on four-sided shapes. Students learn the characteristics and properties of different kinds of four-sided shapes and find their areas. They also build three-dimensional structures and learn to calculate surface area. Students learn to convert from one unit to another in the metric system. They also focus on extending their ability to measure angles.
The advantages and disadvantages of using different methods of payment for goods and services are explored. Students investigate different types of financial goals, identify and describe factors that could affect these goals, and outline steps to achieve them. Students explain the concept of interest rates and identify interest rates and fees offered by banks and other financial institutions. They also learn how trading, lending, borrowing and donating are different ways to distribute resources.
Social emotional learning skills and mathematical processes
Students continue to deepen their sense of self. Students track different aspects that impact their physical and mental health, such as the number of steps they take each day, minutes of screen time or how they feel after physical activity. They use graphs and data visualization tools to provide information for reflection and learning.