Working with numbers up to 1 billion, students are introduced to rational numbers, such as perfect squares and square roots. They are expected to know multiplication facts from 0 × 0 to 12 × 12. Students begin to generate factors (for example, factors of 6 are 1 and 6, 2 and 3), multiples (such as multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 24, and so on) and add and subtract fractions by creating equivalent fractions. Students explore problems that require addition and subtraction of integers (for example, determine the overall score or change in temperature).
Students connect their understanding of whole-number patterns to patterns involving decimals. They continue to solve equations that involve multiple terms, whole numbers, and decimal numbers, such as 2x + 5 = 3x - 1. Students write code to simulate a probability experiment and determine the different results in a game. They also use mathematical modelling to provide insight into real-life situations, such as determining the best options for raising funds for a local charity.
Students learn how to use circle graphs to represent data. They begin to develop a critical eye for analyzing data by examining graphs that may be misleading. Students also determine the differences between the probability of independent events versus dependent events. For example, how does the probability differ if two marbles are drawn from a bag with or without replacement.
Students continue to develop spatial sense as they study the circle. Students learn to measure various aspects of circles, such as circumference, diameter radius and area. They use these and other measurements to find the surface area and volume of cylinders and other three-dimensional objects. Students also learn how to dilate - enlarge and shrink - a shape.
Students begin to learn that international currencies have different values compared to Canadian dollars and understand how exchange rates work. They develop an awareness of how to plan for and reach financial goals. Students build their knowledge of how interest rates can affect savings and investments. They also learn about the cost of borrowing and compare interest rates and fees for different types of accounts and loans to become more informed consumers.
Social-emotional learning skills and mathematical processes
Students learn how to cope with stress and manage complex challenges. Students learn to break down a task into smaller portions, make a plan and take it one step at a time.